Before we get started there’s a little something that I’d like to share with you. It’s puzzled me over the years and still does to this very day.
Out of all the things I have written about Charles Omer Makley, there’s been one subject which has generated more controversy than all the rest combined. And no, it doesn’t concern bank robberies, the Sarber murder or any other crime.
People get upset over the fact that Charley had a family of his very own. I guess the idea of falling in love, getting married, and fathering four children doesn’t jibe with the gangster image.
The thought of Makley leading a regular life as a son, brother, husband and father before becoming a full-time criminal apparently is disturbing to some.
Others rationalize it away by saying that I’m making it up as I go along. Well, sorry to disappoint any of you “Doubting Thomas” out there but surprisingly there’s enough documentation, legal and anecdotal, to choke a mule.
So if you are a member of either of the above parties, please read no further if it bothers you that much.
Unlike any of Charley’s other pieces, this one is going to be short on Makley crimes and long on Makley family. It’s included because I believe one should hear about events that helped shape the life before reaching a conclusion about the man.
This starts in a little town just south and west of Boise, Idaho. It gained its name in the latter half of the nineteenth century from the star nailed to the front door of the wooden school house. This star on the door became a landmark of sorts to the folks traveling on to more populated areas in the territory such as Boise or Caldwell. When they reached the “star school”, they knew that civilization was only about a mile away.
After a time as the settlement near the school grew, it became known as “Star.”
By 1902, the original wood school house with the star had been replaced by a two story brick school house. Four classrooms housed students from grades one through twelve.
As the population in and around Star continued to expand when the town became linked to Boise by the local Interurban line the student body needed more space. So a new high school was built just north of the existing school.
Construction began in 1912. There was a push to get the building far enough along so that classes could start there in the fall of 1912. Jobs were plentiful with workers needed for various trades. One of these workers appears to have been a recently paroled Charley Makley.
No one on site may have realized that Charley had spent the last two and a half years of his life in the Idaho State Penitentiary. It was customary to keep parolees’ identities a secret so that they would have a better chance in the outside world.
And since his accomplice in crime, James Lanning had already settled in the city of Boise, Charley needed to keep his distance by living elsewhere in Ada County. Star seemed as good place as any to make a new start.
When the new high school opened up in September of 1912, one of the students strolling through the doors was known as the fastest female in the entire county...literally. Seventeen year old Izora Pearl Gilman easily had won the fifty yard dash at the Ada County field meet held four months earlier in May.
As the local newspaper succinctly put it “Star was the whole show. Star girls only winners in all three events – 50 yard dash, relay race, and potato race.”
Izora also was a member of the Star girls’ basketball team. And she took her basketball seriously. When a rival school, tried claiming the title of county champions with a technicality, Izora, along with her teammates penned a letter vehemently disputing the claim that was published in the Boise newspaper, The Idaho Statesman.
The youngest from a family of six, with three boys and three girls, Izora had been born in Idaho and raised on a ranch about sixteen miles from town. When her father passed away in 1909, her mother, Emma Gilman left the ranch and moved to Star with her youngest daughter Izora.
There isn’t any existing source of how exactly Charley Makley first met the spunky brunette athlete but by Christmas of 1912, he and Izora had become an item.
Along with Izora, Charley made another new friend within his first few months in Star. Roscoe, also known as “R. T.”, Gillum was about three years younger than Makley. His older brother Harry made headlines around the region as boxer. But by far the best known member of the clan was its patriarch, Mack Gillum.
Officially Mack Gillum was the poundmaster or dog catcher for the Boise area. However when the occasion warranted, he would be promoted to act as a special officer for the police force. Unofficially he was known as one of the “hardest cases” in Idaho.
Mack Gillum did not suffer fools lightly. On the Fourth of July of 1912, the public got a taste of just how tough Gillum could be.
Several soldiers had ridden over from the Boise barracks to the White City Amusement Park. Possible some or all of them had been drinking because a demonstration of “horsemanship” commenced. The soldiers began jumping, rearing and racing their horses among the crowds of families frequenting the amusement park.
The police including Gillum were called to settle things down but to no avail. When one of the police officers tried to place a Private O’Neil under arrest, the soldier attempted to run him over with his horse.
Instead of being driven back like the other officers, Mack Gillum promptly reached up and caught the horse’s bridle to stop it.
The incensed Private O’Neil jumped down, shouting “It will take six men like you to get me!”
“No, it will only take one,” replied Gillum as he fired his revolver in the air to frighten the soldier.
When O’Neil continued to resist arrest, Mack Gillum struck the soldier over the left arm with his club, breaking some bones. At this point, Private O’Neil meekly surrendered.
Along with most of the folks in the Boise area, Charley Makley admired Mack Gillum’s no nonsense approach because shortly afterwards, he began calling himself “Mack”.
There was also another person from the area whose background Charley “borrowed from” extensively during his later criminal years. That man was Samuel D. Gillman, the deceased father of Izora.
Although Gillman had passed away several years before Charley met the family, he heard some of the stories surrounding the man. Born in 1856, in Iowa, as a young man Samuel Gillman had move to Missouri, where he married Emma Z. Wells. Three of their six children were born in Missouri.
However by 1890, the family relocated to Idaho. There Gillman not only ranched but was elected to serve as Justice of the Peace. This was a position he held until his untimely death at the age of 53.
Fifteen years later, in 1927, when Charles Makley was arrested in South Bend, Indiana, he claimed to be a Justice of the Peace from Missouri, giving his age as 53 and providing enough details taken from Gillman’s life to convince three eyewitnesses that they had the wrong man.
Chances are good that if Samuel D. Gillman had still been alive when Charley Makley began courting his daughter, Izora, he would have seen through the ruse and sent Makley packing.
As it was, Emma Gillman was suspicious of the match. Her solution was to remove Izora from school in January of 1913, sending her for an extended visit with relatives and friends in Emmett, Idaho
Although Emmett was just a few miles north of Star, it was located in Gem County, a place that Charley Makley couldn’t follow since he would be violating his parole by leaving Ada County.
Although Emma Gilman thought that once Charley Makley was out of sight, he would be out of Izora’s mind, she was sadly disappointed. Mrs. Gilman hadn’t counted on how inventive the couple could be.
Shortly after Izora left, her best friend, 15 year-old Ella Hall began passing along messages from Izora to Charley. Ella, the daughter of the town doctor, corresponded with Izora often and regularly.
Charley in turn, used the same channel to reciprocate. No one caught on that these letters were fanning the flames of infatuation at both ends. Instead of spending time together to find out if they were suited for each other, Charley and Izora filled in the long distance blanks with highly romanticized ideas.
When spring arrived, Mrs. Gilman gave up, allowing Izora to return. Although she had missed so much school, Izora wouldn’t graduate with her class in May, her mother held on to the faint hope that if she spent enough time with Charley, the allure would disappear.
However this was not to be.
On June 12th, 1913, 23 year old Charles Omer Makley and 17 year old Izora Pearl Gilman were married by the Reverend William H. Applegate, a minister from the town of Middleton, located in Canyon County. Roscoe Gillum and Ella Hall were the witnesses.
The marriage license was duly noted in the Idaho Statesman but there was no accompanying snippet about a celebration or honeymoon trip mentioned in any of the news from Star. This was unusual.
Emma Gilman appeared regularly in the local society pages. Several years earlier when her mother left Joplin, Missouri to move in with the Gilman family, the trip was breathlessly reported in the “Local Notes from Star” section. From the distinct lack of commentary, it appears that Charley and Izora may have eloped.
Eight months later, on February 20, 1914, a son, Omer Makley was born.
The pregnancy evidently had been a difficult one. The baby was born jaundiced and underweight. After struggling to stay alive, little Omer Makley passed away on the evening of February 24th. It fell to Charley to sign the death certificate.
The baby was buried the next day in the Star cemetery.
Evidently this shared tragedy caused Emma Gilman to forgive Izora. The resulting goodwill spilled over to include Charley. From then on, Izora and Charley appeared regularly in the local gossip column that was Star’s social news.
And although Charley probably was glad to make amends with his mother-in-law, he had to be less than thrilled about her sharing his business with everybody and their dog.
It also didn’t help that Charley’s old pal, James Lanning, had recently been arrested for stealing a waitress’s mesh purse from the Creamery Cafe. The theft of the purse which contained eight dollars had been witnessed by one of the dishwashers. If Lanning was found guilty, he would be bundled back to the penitentiary to serve out the remainder of his sentence.
Although Charley had nothing to do with the theft, he was still suspect because of his past association with Lanning.
The run of bad luck continued when his best man’s father, Mack Gillum was forced to quit. A shot gun had accidently discharged during an arrest. The blast hit Gillum’s hand. Although there were multiple surgeries, the hand was finally amputated.
With Gillum gone and Lanning in jail, Charley was disinclined to spend any time at all in Boise although jobs were more plentiful there than around Star. He needed to find steady well-paying work because soon there would be another mouth to feed, Izora was again expecting.
Prior to World War I, jobs in the west were in short supply. In Idaho, ranching, mining, and logging made up the bulk of the state’s industries. An abundance of men looking for work ensured long hours for measly pay, no paid vacations, and the constant threat of layoffs.
Charley was at more of a disadvantage than others seeking employment because the conditions of his parole restricted his ability to travel. However Makley found a job at a local sawmill, stacking lumber.
In late April or May of 1915, a second son was born to Izora and Charley. This baby boy was christened Eugene Guy Makley. Although their first-born had been given Charley’s middle name, Omer, there was no close relative on either the mother’s or father’s side named Eugene or Guy.
Instead of family, Charley appears to have been thinking of someone from St. Marys, Ohio when naming his son.
Dr. Guy Eugene Noble had been born in 1881 on a farm just north of St. Marys. He was educated in a rural one room school. After graduation, he took the teachers examination and passed, teaching in the rural St. Marys schools starting around 1898.
Guy Noble pinched the pennies of his meager teacher’s pay, saving up enough money to enroll in medical school. In 1905, he graduated with honors from a school which is now a part of Ohio State University.
As a new graduate, Dr. Guy E. Noble returned to St. Marys where he stayed in practice for over fifty years. A highly regarded physician, one of Dr. Noble’s interests was the local history of Northwest Ohio. Ironically, he may have played a role in it that he never realized.
During some point in his life, Charley Makley encountered Guy Eugene Noble, whether as a teacher, a doctor or as something else, we may never know. However, Makley was impressed enough to name his first surviving child, Eugene Guy.
By mid 1915, Makley had finished out his prison term. Since he was no longer a parolee bound to stay in one place, Charley switched jobs, becoming a logger for one of the larger companies in the area.
At the time, many loggers were either migrant workers, who spent their summers harvesting crops or hobos passing through the area. Although there were some loggers recruited from the lower class like Charley, they were in the minority.
Loggers averaged around 35cents an hour while toiling in unsafe conditions. Most worked a ten hour day in the forest before retiring for the night to a lumber camp erected nearby.
Work-related deaths were fairly common in the lumber industry. Not only did the loggers have to worry about how unforgiving the trees and equipment could be in case of an accident, there were other less obvious dangers as well.
Often the owners tried going cheap with provisions. As a result, the food served in many logging camps was inedible. And the loggers had to scramble for space with pigs which were kept on hand to eat leftover food scraps. This overall lack of cleanliness made dysentery and other health hazards another danger for the men working in logging camps.
As a result of these conditions, the seeds for the world’s largest company union were sown. Two short years later, soon after the United States had entered World War I, the Loyal Legion of Loggers and Lumbermen would be founded. This union would improve the working conditions for the average logger considerably.
However, in 1915, substandard conditions or not, Charley may have welcomed a change of scenery. While his wife and mother-in-law entertained the Ladies Aid society at home, Charley traveled from camp to camp logging throughout the far-flung wilderness of Northern Idaho.
Ever since he’d walked through the gates, leaving the penitentiary behind, Charley Makley tried keeping out of trouble. If there were any small bumps in the road, he had Mack Gillum help smooth things over.
Now with Gillum gone from the police force and his own association with a rougher class of men, Charley was finding it harder than ever to keep his nose clean.
A week or so before Christmas of 1915, Charley Makley was arrested once more, however, this time, it wasn’t for robbery.
The Deputy Game Warden, an officer by the name of Cliff, determined that Charley had violated a local game law by shooting a Mongolian pheasant near Star. He persuaded one of the local judges to issue a warrant for Makley’s arrest.
His arrest made the Boise newspaper.
Charley did not take this arrest lightly. As soon as bail was made, he and Izora sold their small home to a J.E. Turpen for $25.00. They quickly relocated to Eagle, another small town east of Star.
J.E. or Jack Turpen the gentleman who purchased their property was a blacksmith. He also appears to have been a friend of the Makleys. And as such, he had a bit of “friendly” advice for Charley’s predicament.
A few months earlier, Jack and two other young men had run into a bit of trouble after making fun of the local marshal. Evidently one of the trio muttered “bow-wow” as the marshal passed them on the street.
Unfortunately said marshal had little or no sense of humor. Instead he turned around and began beating one of the young men with his night stick. Things devolved even further as the other two jumped into the fray.
The young man who was beaten filed an assault with a deadly weapon complaint against the marshal while he, in turn, charged all three of the men with interfering with an officer of the law.
The case against the marshal was dismissed and two out of the three young men pled guilty and paid a fine of $20.00. However, Jack Turpen declined to settle the matter in this way and demanded a trial. Several days later the case was dismissed.
Charley decided to take a page from Jack Turpen’s book. He refused to plead guilty. Instead his case would be tried in front of a judge and jury.
On Tuesday, December 28th, the trial was held. Another man by the name of Snyder had also been arrested for the same charges. He quickly pled guilty and agreed to pay a small fine. Next it was Charley’s turn.
Officer Cliff, the state game warden testified how he had found a pheasant which had been shot tucked away in the game bag that Makley had been carrying.
Charley decided to defend himself in this matter. As he stood before Justice Miller and a jury of twelve, Makley earnestly insisted that he “had not shot at a bird at all.” Instead he had “only killed three ducks.”
Evidently this eloquent but convoluted bit of testimony coupled with Snyder’s admission of guilt was enough to sway the jury in Charley’s favor. He was found not guilty on the first ballot.
1916 started out quietly enough. Charley was bringing in a steady paycheck but this meant that he was out of town most of the time. By late spring, Izora informed him there was another baby on the way.
Around the same time as that bit of news, another piece of bad luck struck Mack Gillum. On the evening of May 11th, his residence caught on fire. There was so much damage the building was declared inhabitable. Luckily the entire family was out of town when the fire took place and their home had been fully insured.
No one at the time suspected that it wasn’t by simply by chance the Gillum family and quite a few of their possessions happened to be gone when the fire took place.
When the inspector for the Royal Insurance Company arrived for a routine visit it was for the purpose of completing necessary paperwork so a reimbursement check could be issued.
When he took a look at 1702 Franklin Street, the inspector was shocked. There had been three to four distinct points of origin for the fire. The floorboards still reeked from being soaked with coal oil and as he looked further, the remains of newspaper piles were stacked throughout the house. This had been an act of arson.
When the investigation started there were a handful of suspects but as time wore on, the evidence pointed directly at Mack Gillum and another man by the name of Sheehan.
Ever since he had lost his hand, Gillum couldn’t seem to make a go of it. Times were tough so he resorted to whatever was needed to raise cash. At the time of the fire, the Boise police probably realized it was arson but were willing to look the other way for a former officer. When a warrant was produced, they refused to arrest Gillum so the job fell to the county sheriff.
The ensuing trials stretched on for the next eight months as charges and counter-charges flew. One shocked headline reported that Mack Gillum stated “I won’t go to the pen; I will go to the boneyard first.”
The case against Gillum was finally dismissed on a technicality for inadmissible evidence. The other suspect was found guilty of arson and sentenced to time at the Idaho State Penitentiary.
However the damage had been done. Mack Gillum’s fall from grace was complete. Many former supporters now would have nothing to do with him. Charley Makley may have sympathized because he continued his friendship with the Gillum family over the objections of his mother-in-law.
Emma Gillman’s constant presence was beginning to wear on Charley. Although they no longer lived in the same town, Izora still spent a considerable amount of time with her mother. It may have seemed to Charley that his paycheck was more welcome than he was at home.
The distance between husband and wife continued to grow. In late summer of 1916, while Charley was sweating out a dusty lumber job near Idaho City, Izora and her mother took a two week “recreation trip” north to the Payette lakes region.
Despite their differences, Charley was there for the birth of their baby girl on January 27th, 1917. He insisted that she be named after his own mother. To keep the peace, Charley agreed the baby girl should have the same middle name as his mother-in-law. And so Helen Zetta Makley was christened.
At the time of baby Helen’s birth, events were in a turmoil throughout the world.
War had erupted in Western Europe during 1914. The United States attempted to remain neutral but both sides tried drawing the US into the war by exposing the population to propaganda. Much of this material was Pro-British.
Propaganda sympathetic to Germany also existed, but it was viewed with skepticism by the American public. Germany was seen by most Americans as dangerous with a hidden agenda to undermine democracy. There were accusations of industrial sabotage and espionage within American labor unions by Germans to keep the United States busy on the home front. These rumors, coupled with the sinking of various passenger ships by German submarines, added to an overall distrust of the Germans.
By April of 1917, President Woodrow Wilson had asked Congress to declare war on Germany.
In the subsequent booming wartime economy, jobs became plentiful because the United States needed warplanes and ships to fight the war in Europe. However before anything could be built, raw materials, much of it coming from lumber, had to be procured.
When Charley registered for the draft in June of 1917, work abounded. At the time he was located at a logging camp along Grimes Creek in Boise County.
Fifty years earlier, Grimes Creek had been the destination for many a prospector hungry for gold. By the time Charley arrived, the area had been extensively mined with most of the gold already played out.
Charley may have picked up a gold nugget or two along the creek while he was there. The money would have come in handy for him since work stopped abruptly in July of 1917 as the entire Northwest lumber industry ground to a standstill.
Sensing opportunity, loggers, lumbermen and other affiliated workers decided to stage slowdowns and strikes to improve their overall condition. As summer turned to fall, the lack of lumber for the war effort reached a crisis situation and the Federal government stepped in to mediate. By mid-October, a settlement was reached. However the slowdown had created a bottleneck in the production of war materials.
Although he had returned to work with the other lumbermen in the fall, a featured article from the January 1918 edition of a magazine called The Lumberjack may have caught Charley’s eye. It told of the immediate need for seasoned loggers in Tacoma, Washington because “the necessity for an adequate production of ships is the most serious matter that now confronts us in this greatest crisis in our country’s history, or in the history of the world.”
The article went on to describe all the high paying jobs currently available in Tacoma’s Todd Shipyard Corporation.
The combination of better pay, an eight hour work day, and benefits coupled with Charley’s desire to put some serious miles between his wife and mother-in-law fueled his “patriotic” decision to get a job at the shipyards of Tacoma.
Todd Shipyards had started up in 1916, originally located in Seattle, Washington. At the time, its owner, William H. Todd fully intended to repair existing ships, not build new ones. Before the creation of the Panama Canal, it was believed there was no real money to be made in ship building on the West coast.
However, only six months later, Todd Shipyards had received orders for the construction of more than twelve ships from the United States government’s Emergency Fleet Corporation in preparation for entry into World War I.
Since there was no additional room in Seattle to accommodate such a large expansion, Todd found space on Commencement Bay in Tacoma, Washington on what would later become the Port of Tacoma’s Blair Waterway.
A 12,000 ton dry dock was constructed in Seattle and then floated to Tacoma. Work began immediately on ships including the USS Omaha and USS Milwaukee.
By spring of 1918, the Makley family had relocated to Tacoma. Although Charley might have thought once the move was made, Izora would focus more attention on him, especially since he would be home every night, he was badly mistaken.
Izora was homesick. Within a four month period, she made at least three trips back to Star, Idaho to visit her mother. Shortly afterwards, Emma Gilman traveled to Tacoma for a visit that extended into the holidays.
By now all parties involved realized that things weren’t working out in Tacoma even though they had been there less than a year. To complicate the situation even further, Izora was pregnant once again.
Charley agreed to leave Tacoma but refused to move back to Star. Instead a compromise was reached. Izora’s oldest sister, Mildred, lived with her husband, John Van Doran in Portland, Oregon.
Although Portland was about the same distance from Star as Tacoma, Izora would now have a relative living close by. And even though with this move, Charley was giving up a lucrative job at the shipyards, he welcomed the chance to renew ties with an old friend…James Lanning.
Over the last few years, James Lanning used his “day job” to appear as a respectable, law abiding citizen while still dabbling in crime. His cover was blown in the fall of 1918 when Lanning and another man, Nick Michaels, were caught red-handed with one hundred and ninety quarts of Old Crow whiskey hidden in a speedy six-cylinder car on the Nampa ferry while crossing the Snake River.
As the local newspaper of the time put it, “The goods were on the way to the oasis of Boise which is in the north end of the desert of Ada.” In other words, Ada along with some other counties in Idaho allowed nothing stronger than “near beer”. Because of these restrictions, whiskey running could be a profitable business despite the risks.
Although he already had a record, Lanning was new offender for transporting illegal liquor. Michaels, a repeat violator of the liquor laws, had already served time under a different last name at the Idaho State Penitentiary.
At the ensuing trials, Lanning cut a deal. He pled guilty, was fined $50.00 and served thirty days in the county jail. In return, he took the stand to testify against Michaels. It took the jury less than five minutes to find Nick Michaels guilty of felonious transportation of liquor which resulted in his return to the Idaho State Pen.
With his partner gone, Lanning began looking for someone else.
At some point early in 1919, Charley Makley and James Lanning started doing business together. Their business was the purchase of illegal liquor outside of Idaho and then smuggling it across the state line for delivery to a parched public.
The liquor running ensured that Charley was back on the road more often than he was at home in Portland. At times, he brought his family back to Star to spend time with family and friends while he continued on into Boise to make deals.
It was during such a visit back to Star in early May of 1919, that his youngest son, Fred, was born. How the parents chose that name remains a bit of a mystery. Although Charley Makley’s youngest stepbrother was known as Fred or Fredie, there might have been a different inspiration for the name. Just three months earlier, James and May Lanning had a baby boy they called Fredrick.
Shortly after Fred’s birth when Izora was back on her feet again, the family returned to Portland.
On June 11, 1919, the Idaho Statesman published a short blurb about Emma Gillman going for a visit with her daughter and family, Mrs. Charles Makley. This would be the last time that anyone in Star read anything about Emma or Izora in the society column.
A little over a month later, few if any in the area paid much attention to a special dispatch from Twin Falls, Idaho which reported that “B.F. Wilkins and James F. Lanning alias J.F. Beasley, were arrested here Thursday night by the sheriff’s office on warrants issued in Portland. They are said to be accused of the theft of an automobile. They had been here but a short time and were employed as waiters in restaurants.”
The twosome returned to Portland in the company of lawmen where it was discovered that the sheriff in Twin Falls had arrested the wrong man. Portland authorities were looking for James Lanning and Charles Makley.
Since Lanning was operating under an alias, the sheriff assumed that “Wilkins” was the alias for Charles Makley. And despite Wilkins’ protests to the contrary, he was hauled back to Portland where he was charged as Charles Makley for auto theft.
Once there, Wilkins finally established his true identity and then filed a lawsuit for false arrest.
Lanning, on the other hand, fell back on his old habit of “let’s make a deal”.
He struck a bargain to plead guilty to larceny of the automobile but then went on to testify that Charles Makley was the one who actually stole the car.
By this time the real Charley Makley had heard about the arrests. He panicked, deciding to leave town. Since a quick getaway wouldn’t be very practical with a wife and three children (one a newborn), he left them behind with Izora’s sister and made a beeline east.
He should have stuck it out.
Although James Lanning had been arrested multiple times in Idaho, this was his first offense in the state of Oregon. Because of his cooperation, he was sentenced to three months in the county jail. This became even more of a slap on the wrist when Lanning was paroled shortly after arrival at the jail.
Unaware of all the deal-making, Charley vowed not to get caught. By the time he hit Chicago, he had a new identity, becoming Charles “Mack” McGray. And six months later, he would claim to have tried going “straight” with a new job and a new wife.
But did Charley really cut all of his ties back west, leaving Izora and their children, Guy, Helen, and Fred for good?
That, my friends is a story for another day.
Haywood Found Not Guilty, July 29, 1907, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Samuel D. Gilman Tells Of His Experience In Jury Room, July 29, 1907, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
S.D. Gilman Makes Statement, July 30, 1907, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Star Comes Back On Basketball, March 31, 1911, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Special Officer Breaks Arm Of A Soldier, July 5, 1912, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Star Schools Are Successful On Track, May 6, 1912, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
News Notes From Star, January 21, 1913, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Star Preparing For High School Commencement, May 4, 1913, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Brief City News, May 5, 1913, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Marriage License and Certificate, #49377, June 11, 1913, Ada County, Idaho
Death Certificate, Omer Makley, February 24, 1914, State of Idaho
Brief City News, December 26, 1913, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
News Notes From Star, February 26, 1914, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho.
Brief City News, October 13, 1914, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
“Bow-Wow” Trial At Star, March 5, 1915, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Turpen Case Dismissed, March 10, 1915, The Idaho Statesman, Boise Idaho
Brief City Notes, March 30, 1915, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Brief City News, December 15, 1915, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Boise Courts, December 29, 1915, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Notes From Star, June 6, 1916, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Two Charged With Arson, June 18, 1916, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Star Brevities, August 5, 1916, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Warned From The Stand, He Says, October 15, 1916, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Star News Notes, October 27, 1916, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
News of Record, December 22, 1915, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Star News Briefs, January 14, 1916. The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Star News Briefs- Birth Announcement, January 30, 1917, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Sheehan Takes The Stand Himself, February 2, 1917, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Star, November 16, 1918, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Star, January 19, 1919, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Star, February 4, 1919, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Births, Marriages and Deaths, February 19, 1919, The Idaho Stateman, Boise, Idaho
Deputies Make A Rich Haul, February 27, 1919, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Lanning Gets 30 Days and $50, March 14, 1919,The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Michaels Found Guilty, March 17, 1919, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Star – Birth Announcement, May 6, 1919, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Star, June 11, 1919, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Twin Falls Waiters Wanted In Portland For Auto Theft, August 2, 1919, The Idaho Statesman, Boise, Idaho
Smith To Be Defended, September 14, 1920, The Oregonian, Portland, Oregon
Smith Case Dropped, September 16, 1920, The Oregonian, Portland, Oregon
Fourteenth Census of the United States - 1920
Dr. Guy E. Noble, Physician and Surgeon Here Better Than 50 Years Dies Today; Funeral Services Will Be Thursday At 2. October 1958, The Evening Leader, St. Marys, Ohio
STRIKE –Seattle General Strike Project, Loyal Legion of Loggers and Lumberman, Erik Mickelson, http://depts.washington.edu/labhist/strike/mickelson.shtml
The Oregon History Project – Loyal Legion of Loggers & Lumbermen Pledge, Oregon Historical Society, Catalogue Number: OrHi77731.
Todd Shipyards and Port of Tacoma, Tacoma Public Library, Tacoma, Washington, Image Archives, http://search.tacomapubliclibrary.org/images/
STAR HISTORY – What’s In A Name? Kelly Mitchell, Star Independent, October 2007
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